Authentic Idli recipe – How to make soft idlis every time

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Idli, also known as idly is a soft and pillowy steamed cake that is made by grinding rice, urad dal (skinned black lentils), along with water. Follow this authentic recipe to make those melt-in-your-mouth, soft idlis just like the ones made in south Indian homes.

A hand holding a steaming hot idli
Idli Recipe

The alarm goes off noisily and in one quick motion, I hit snooze, slide off my covers and sprint downstairs to check on something in the kitchen.

In less than a minute, I am back in my bed with a big smile on my face. My husband who knows this Sunday morning routine well by now takes one look at my face states “Looks like the idli batter has fermented”. I nod and go back to sleep peacefully dreaming about the pillow-soft idlis we are going to have for breakfast.

What is idli and what is it made of?

Idli is a savory dish that hails from the southern part of India and is made by grinding rice, urad dal (skinned black lentils), along with water. This mixture is then left to ferment overnight before being steamed in an idli steamer.

While they were traditionally eaten as a breakfast item along with chutney and sambar, during the last couple of decades it has become popular as a snack food throughout India.

A stack of 3 spongy idlis kept on a black plate
Soft and Spongy Idlis

How to make soft idlis?

For those who have experienced the whimsical nature of the idli dosa batter probably know that making soft idlis can be compared to predicting the weather. The uncertainty that is involved with the fermentation process can drive anyone up the wall especially after having taken the time to soak the rice and urad dal and grinding them to the perfect texture and the consistency that these idlis demand.

And the cleanup that is required afterward if you have used the wet stone grinder – don’t even get me started on that.

But having experimented for 10 years with different ingredients and temperatures, I am very excited to state that I have a winner recipe that has been giving me consistent results. Drum roll, please 🙂

A hand holding an Idli broken into half
Idli recipe

The softness of the idlis depends on five factors – idli batter proportion, equipment used to grind, batter consistency, fermentation and steaming process.

  1. Idli batter proportion – The 2 key ingredients for idli are – Rice and Urad dal. The ratio in which it is used changes depending on the weather. For instance, in winter, use 1:3 ratio and summer 1:4 i.e for every 1 cup urad dal use 3 cups of rice (in winter) or 4 cups of rice (in summer).
    • RiceIdli rice or parboiled rice or ponni boiled rice.
    • Whole urad dal – Always use whole urad dal for best results. An even better option would be the unprocessed black split urad dal but it is a pain to separate the skin out – needs to be rinsed at least 10-12 times.
    • Methi or fenugreek seeds – The methi seeds aid with fermentation but are optional if you live in a warm place.
    • Thick poha (flattened rice) – Soak a fistful of thick poha (flattened rice) (approximately 1/2 cup) in water for 5 minutes before grinding rice. Grind it alongside rice. Note –  I don’t use this because while it makes the idli soft, the leftover batter tends to go sour quickly.
  2. Equipment – Originally a big stone mortar/pestle was used to grind but not many people use it anymore. The options that are available now are
    • Electric Wet stone grinder – The next best thing to using stone mortar/ pestle. There are 2 popular models. I have this one from Premier wonder (1.5L capacity) and my friend has this one from Ultra-Dura (1.25L). Both do a great job of grinding the batter though it takes approximately 20-30 minutes.
    • Indian Mixer and Grinder – Most Indian homes have a mixie like this one and this was the go-to machine in my house for idli/dosa batter. The only problem is that it has a tendency to overheat quickly and shuts down. Also, when overloaded it heats up the batter destroying the good bacteria in the process. To get around this issue – grind in small batches and use ice-cold water while grinding.
    • High-performance blenders like Blendtec   – Ever since we brought Blendtec home, I have started using them to grind my idlis. Takes only 2 minutes. I run the smoothie cycle to grind urad dal as well as the rice. Use cold water to prevent overheating and killing the good bacteria.
  3. Batter consistency – The batter should not be runny or too thick. Think more like a free-flowing pancake batter.
  4. Fermentation –  Leave the batter to ferment in a warm place. Fermentation can take anywhere between 8 – 12 hours (and sometimes up to 15 hours in cold winters). For most people in India, that would mean leaving it on your kitchen counter. But for those living abroad in much colder climates, you have the following options
    • Oven – Leave it in your oven with the light on or Preheat your oven to 170 degrees F or the lowest temperature it can be preheated to. Turn off the oven. Wait for 10 minutes and then place the batter inside the oven.
    • Close to your heat vent – Always place your vessel on a cookie sheet – don’t want the overflowing batter seeping in the vent.
    • The proof setting in your oven – If your oven has a proof setting, go ahead and use it. Set it for 12 hours and your batter is nice and ready.
    • Use an Instant Pot (my preferred choice) –  This is my preferred method because it yields consistent results every time. For a detailed post on fermenting idli batter in Instant Pot check out this Instant Pot idli recipe post.
      • Pour the batter into the steel insert.
      • Place the steel insert inside the Instant Pot.
      • Press the yogurt function – the display should read “YOGT”.
      • Adjust the time to 12 hours and the selection should be “less”. Do not use the Instant Pot Lid because sometimes due to overflowing batter, the lid gets locked. Use a glass lid instead.   
      • Note – When I use Blendtec to grind, I add a few ice cubes to the idli batter and mix well AFTER it is ground. The melting ice cubes ensure that the batter does not overheat].
  5. Steaming process – There are 3 ways to steam the idlis – using a South Indian Idli cooker, pressure cooker or an Instant Pot. Overcooking idlis make them hard. Irrespective of which device you use, 10 minutes should be sufficient time to steam idlis.

Serving suggestions for idli

Serve with piping hot sambar and either red coconut chutney or white coconut chutney

Idli is being dunked in sambar
Idli served with sambar and coconut chutney

Frequently asked questions about fermenting idli batter

What is idli rice? Is it parboiled rice? 

Yes, they are the same.

Can idli batter recipe be followed for dosa batter?

Yes, it is. The typical practice in our household has been to make idlis from the freshly fermented batter and store the remaining batter in the refrigerator for dosas. Idlis made from refrigerated batter tend to be less soft than the ones made the same day the batter has fermented.

How long does it take to steam idli?

Approximately 8-10 minutes depending on the steamer you use.

How long to soak the rice?

4 -6 hours. You can soak them overnight as well.

How long to soak urad dal?

4 -6 hours. You can soak them overnight as well.

What if the batter doesn’t ferment?

Does the batter appear too thick? Add spoonfuls of water and whisk it well. If it doesn’t ferment after 18 hours, refrigerate the batter and make dosas.

Let’s recap, so here’s how to make soft idlis consistently

  1. Choose the right variety of rice (idli rice/parboiled rice/ponni boiled rice)
  2. Use whole urad dal
  3. Idli batter recipe – Follow a 1:4 ratio of urad dal to rice in summer and 1:3 ratio of urad dal to rice in winter. Essentially you are increasing the ratio of urad dal in winter to aid with fermentation. 
  4. Batter consistency should be free-flowing – neither too thick or watery
  5. Find a warm place to ferment (oven/heat vent/Instant pot)
  6. Add salt and whisk the batter well once fermented.
  7. Grease the idli molds. Do not steam for more than 10 minutes.

I never want you to be disappointed that your idli batter didn’t ferment. Do you have more questions? I would love to answer them. Leave a comment and I will be happy to help.

If you are looking for South Indian breakfast recipes, I have a few family favorites that I am sure you’ll love – 

  1. Lemon vermicelli -This delicious and tangy Semiya Upma (Lemon Vermicelli) is just what you need to start your day. It is filling and comes together in 15 minutes from start to finish.
  2. Upma – a semolina based breakfast dish that takes less than 30 minutes.
  3. Buttermilk dosa – Buttermilk dosa – Delicious and soft, this dosa is perfect for breakfast, snack, and even lunch. Learn how to make it in a few easy steps.
  4. Kapparutti – Kappa rutti or Kappa rotti – This soft in the center and crispy on the sides 4-ingredient dosa or pancake from Mangalore is a culinary delight. Try it out today – no fermentation required!

Got a new Instant Pot? Check out the links below to make the most of your pressure cooker -  
Do your idlis not turn out as soft as you want them to be? Learn the authentic south-Indian way to make idlis and start making soft idlis in no time
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4.67 from 15 votes

Idli recipe – How to make soft idlis every time

Author : Anushree Shetty
Do your idlis not turn out as soft as you want them to be? Learn the authentic south-Indian way to make idli and start making soft idlis in no time.
Prep Time : 10 mins
Cook Time : 10 mins
Fermenting time : 12 hrs
Total Time : 30 mins
Servings : 32 idlis




  • Wash the rice and urad dal separately until the water runs clean.
  • Add the methi/fenugreek seeds to the rice and soak it in water for 4-6 hours. Soak the urad dal too for the same amount of time.


  • Soak a fistful of thick poha (flattened rice) (if using) in water for 5 minutes before grinding rice.
  • Drain all the water from the urad dal and grind it to a fine paste using spoonfuls of water at a time (approximately 3/4 cup in total).
  • Grind the rice to a coarse paste with approximately 1 cup of water and then mix both the pastes together in a large bowl and whisk them well.
  • Add water as needed (approximately another 1/2 cup) to get the batter to a consistency that is neither too thick or thin. If using Blendtec, run the smoothie cycle (approximately 60 seconds) for both idli and urad dal batter.
  • Fermentation – Keep the batter in a warm place to ferment (see notes). Once the batter has risen, add salt to the batter and whisk the batter to mix it well.


  • Grease the idli stand with oil and take a ladleful of batter and fill the idli mold.
  • Add 1/2 cup of water in the idli steamer and let it boil.
  • Put the idli stand inside and close the lid. Let the steam build for 8-10 minutes before switching off the gas.
  • If you are using a cooker, use it without a vent and steam it for 10 minutes and then switch the gas off. In both cases, wait until the steam is released (another 5-10 minutes) before you take the idli stand out.
  • Wait for another 5 minutes and then use a sharp knife to scoop the idlis out.
  • Serve warm with coconut chutney or red coconut chutney.


Fermentation – Fermentation can take anywhere between 8 – 12 hours (and sometimes up to 15 hours) depending on where you live. The batter is usually left to ferment in a warm place. For most people in India, that would mean leaving it on your kitchen counter. But for those living abroad in much colder climates, you have the following options
  1. Oven – Leave it in your oven with the light on or Preheat your oven to 170 degrees F or the lowest temperature it can be preheated to. Turn off the oven. Wait for 10 minutes and then place the batter in the oven.
  2. Close to your heat vent – Always place your vessel on a cookie sheet – don’t want the overflowing batter seeping inside the vent.
  3. The proof setting in your oven – Set it for 12 hours and your batter is nice and ready.
  4. Use an Instant Pot (my preferred choice) – Try this Instant Pot Idli recipe – this is my goto method to ferment idli batter.
Don’t forget to..Read the post for helpful information on ingredient swaps, storage tips, meal prep ideas and variations!

Disclaimer: Approximate nutritional information is provided as a courtesy and can vary depending on the exact ingredients/brands used. If you have health issues, please work with a registered dietician or nutritionist.


Serving: 1idliCalories: 52kcalCarbohydrates: 11gProtein: 1gSodium: 74mgFiber: 1g
Diet : Gluten-free, Vegan
Course : Breakfast
Method: Stovetop
Keyword : fermenting idli batter, soft, winter
Cuisine : Indian

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  1. Hi..i do the same way as u do. I get sooper soft idlis the next day after i grind and ferment. But the thing is when i try makimg idlis the second day i get sticky and flat ones.what is the reason? Please help.

    1. Nivedhitha – try keeping the batter out of the refrigerator for an hour before you start making idlis. I have had better results when I did this – not as soft as the first day but definitely not hard.

  2. Hello, my name is Manika, my idli batter ferments good,(i don’t use poha) but i don’t know why the idlis does not come out soft. ( I have using 1:4 ratio- urad dal and idli rice). Please suggest.

  3. Hi,

    Thanks for sharing the recipe.. I had a quick question. My batter fermented well but the idlis turned out very sticky and did not fluff as much. Any suggestions. I used 1cup whole urad daal and 3cups rice.

    Also can the same batter be used to make crispy dosas.


    1. Hi Charmy, You can definitely use it for dosas. Let’s troubleshoot your idli first – The reason it turns sticky and flat is because the water content in the batter was high. Did you add water after it was fermented?

  4. Hi Anu! I am going to try the 1:3 ratio and have never added vendhayam before so will try! Also, how fine do you grind the rice? I have a wet grinder and typically have to grind for 40 mins to get it smooth. But reading this sounds like it should be coarsely ground? I typically do 1:4 and leave to ferment in the oven at 100F as it’s a polar vortex in the Midwest lol. I’ve found it rises but my idli has been kind of dense and gluey? Do you think the ratio will fix it or is it also the coarseness / vendhayam? Also do you not add salt?
    Thanks! Lavanya

    1. Lavanya, when it it fermented throughout or is it just the top layer? If it is just the top layer, wait till it is fully fermented. Try the 1:3 ratio especially during winter. I do grind the rice a little coarse but that shouldn’t matter so much. I add salt after fermentation. Hope this helps!

  5. I tried this. You really explained it well. At first my idli batter had not risen in 8 hours. N since I have to do for tiffin I didn’t have choice so added a pinch of baking soda. It came out good. Later I kept the batter again to ferment for two hours in preheated microwave wrapped with cloth. It rose so well in 2 hours. My idlis came out double the size.
    Thanks a ton. Now I learnt the tricks for perfect idlis.

  6. Anu,this is Anuradha Phatak from Michigan. The weather here is severely cold now on. So for idlis batter fermentation, I use every and all possible ways. As my oven light is too powerful it makes the inside of the oven very hot do what I do is I keep a vessel full of water along side of the batter vessel and that way the batter ferments well but it’s a bit extra boring so I try to keep the microwave door open so the batter stays warm under it’s light all through night.. I just rubber band the handle to the cabinet handle do the microwave door stays open not wide open to give the warmth of the light.
    Last two times batter didn’t ferment well. It didn’t rise well. It had small bubbles and it was just about as it was after grinding. If such happens idlis come out harder and not soft. What can we do in this situation.

  7. Any..
    I am thinking of purchasing a 7 in 1 instant pot. Since we are a family of 4 I under that 6 qt is more ideal, but I wonder if a 6 qt insert has enough room to let the batter double in volume for fermentation. If I buy an 8 qt that would be too big for daily usage so I am wondering if I can buy a 8 qt IP along with a 6 qt insert and use the IP with 6 qt insert for daily usage while I use the 8 qt insert for fermenting idli and dosa batter. Please let me know if this would work.

    1. Hi, Veena – I don’t have an 8-qt IP, so I can’t run a test to see if that would work. You could ask Instant Pot support- they are really quick at getting back to you.

  8. Finally an idli recipe for cold winters that absolutely works – thanks a lot Anu. 1:3 ratio resulted in some soft melt in your mouth idlis, serving it with pasi paruppu sambar and chutney.

    1. Thanks, Anita for stopping by and taking time to leave me a comment. I am so happy that this recipe worked for you.

  9. Please try to add a similar quantity of Sabhu Dhana(SAGO SEEDS) as the rice flakes, probably you will have more fluffy and softer idlis, i have tried it and it works….

  10. 5 stars
    First of all, thank you for taking the time and patience to impart the knowledge that you have. It is always easier said than done and kudos to you!
    Secondly, thank you for the ice cube tip for the perfect idli batter. I use the same proportions and my batter had not risen after 8 hrs and I did not want to leave it in the oven all night, dreading a stinky overfermented batter. So I put in a few cubes of ice, turned OFF the oven light and hoped for the best. I couldn’t be happier????. THANK YOU! I am looking forward to trying more of your recipes.

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