Authentic Idli recipe – How to make soft idlis every time

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Idli, also known as idly, is a soft and pillowy steamed cake that is made by grinding rice, urad dal (skinned black lentils), along with water. Follow this authentic recipe to make those melt-in-your-mouth soft idlis just like the ones made in South Indian homes.

A hand holding a steaming hot idli
Idli Recipe

What is idli?

Idli is a savory dish that hails from the southern part of India and is made by grinding rice, urad dal (skinned black lentils), along with water. This mixture is then left to ferment overnight before being steamed in an idli steamer.

While they were traditionally eaten as a breakfast item along with chutney and sambar, during the last couple of decades, it has become popular as a snack food throughout India.

A stack of 3 spongy idlis kept on a black plate
Soft and Spongy Idlis

How to make soft idlis?

Those who have experienced the whimsical nature of the idli dosa batter probably know that making soft idlis can be compared to predicting the weather. The uncertainty that is involved with the fermentation process can drive anyone up the wall, especially after having taken the time to soak the rice and urad dal and grind them to the perfect texture and consistency that these idlis demand.

And the cleanup that is required afterward if you have used the wet stone grinder – don’t even get me started on that.

But having experimented for 10 years with different ingredients and temperatures, I am very excited to state that I have a winning recipe that has been giving me consistent results. Drum roll, please 🙂

A hand holding an Idli broken into half
Idli recipe

The softness of the idlis depends on five factors – idli batter proportion, equipment used to grind, batter consistency, fermentation, and steaming process.

  1. Idli batter proportion – The 2 key ingredients for idli are – Rice and Urad dal. The ratio in which it is used changes depending on the weather. For instance, in winter, use 1:3 ratio, and in summer, 1:4 i.e. for every 1 cup urad dal, use 3 cups of rice (in winter) or 4 cups of rice (in summer).
    • RiceIdli rice or parboiled rice or ponni boiled rice.
    • Whole urad dal – Always use whole urad dal for best results. An even better option would be the unprocessed black split urad dal but it is a pain to separate the skin out – it needs to be rinsed at least 10-12 times.
    • Methi or fenugreek seeds – The methi seeds aid with fermentation but are optional if you live in a warm place.
    • Thick poha (flattened rice) – Soak a fistful of thick poha (flattened rice) (approximately 1/2 cup) in water for 5 minutes before grinding rice. Grind it alongside rice. Note –  I don’t use this because while it makes the idli soft, the leftover batter tends to go sour quickly.
  2. Equipment – Originally, a big stone mortar/pestle was used to grind, but not many people use it anymore. The options that are available now are
    • Electric Wet stone grinder – The next best thing to using stone mortar/ pestle. There are 2 popular models. I have this one from Premier wonder (1.5L capacity) and my friend has this one from Ultra-Dura (1.25L). Both do a great job of grinding the batter though it takes approximately 20-30 minutes.
    • Indian Mixer and Grinder – Most Indian homes have a mixie like this one, and this was the go-to machine in my house for idli/dosa batter. The only problem is that it has a tendency to overheat quickly and shuts down. Also, when overloaded, it heats up the batter, destroying the good bacteria in the process. To get around this issue – grind in small batches and use ice-cold water while grinding.
    • High-performance blenders like Blendtec   – Ever since we brought Blendtec home, I have started using them to grind my idlis. Takes only 2 minutes. I run the smoothie cycle to grind urad dal as well as the rice. Use cold water to prevent overheating and killing the good bacteria.
  3. Batter consistency – The batter should not be runny or too thick. Think more like a free-flowing pancake batter.
  4. Fermentation –  Leave the batter to ferment in a warm place. Fermentation can take anywhere between 8 – 12 hours (and sometimes up to 15 hours in cold winters). For most people in India, that would mean leaving it on your kitchen counter. But for those living abroad in much colder climates, you have the following options
    • Oven – Leave it in your oven with the light on or Preheat your oven to 170 degrees F or the lowest temperature it can be preheated to. Turn off the oven. Wait for 10 minutes, and then place the batter inside the oven.
    • Close to your heat vent – Always place your vessel on a cookie sheet – you don’t want the overflowing batter seeping into the vent.
    • The proof setting in your oven – If your oven has a proof setting, go ahead and use it. Set it for 12 hours, and your batter is nice and ready.
    • Use an Instant Pot (my preferred choice) –  This is my preferred method because it yields consistent results every time. For a detailed post on fermenting idli batter in Instant Pot, check out this Instant Pot idli recipe post.
      • Pour the batter into the steel insert.
      • Place the steel insert inside the Instant Pot.
      • Press the yogurt function – the display should read “YOGT”.
      • Adjust the time to 12 hours, and the selection should be “less”. Do not use the Instant Pot Lid because sometimes, due to overflowing batter, the lid gets locked. Use a glass lid instead.   
      • Note – When I use Blendtec to grind, I add a few ice cubes to the idli batter and mix well AFTER it is ground. The melting ice cubes ensure that the batter does not overheat].
  5. Steaming process – There are three ways to steam the idlis – using a South Indian Idli cooker, pressure cooker, or an Instant Pot. Overcooking idlis makes them hard. Irrespective of which device you use, 10 minutes should be sufficient time to steam idlis.

Serving suggestions for idli

Serve with piping hot sambar and either red coconut chutney or white coconut chutney

Idli is being dunked in sambar
Idli served with sambar and coconut chutney

Frequently asked questions about fermenting idli batter

What is idli rice? Is it parboiled rice? 

Yes, they are the same.

Can idli batter recipe be followed for dosa batter?

Yes, it is. The typical practice in our household has been to make idlis from the freshly fermented batter and store the remaining batter in the refrigerator for dosas. Idlis made from refrigerated batter tend to be less soft than the ones made the same day the batter has fermented.

How long does it take to steam idli?

Approximately 8-10 minutes, depending on the steamer you use.

How long to soak the rice?

4 -6 hours. You can soak them overnight as well.

How long to soak urad dal?

4 -6 hours. You can soak them overnight as well.

What if the batter doesn’t ferment?

Does the batter appear too thick? Add spoonfuls of water and whisk it well. If it doesn’t ferment after 18 hours, refrigerate the batter and make dosas.

Let’s recap, so here’s how to make soft idlis consistently

  1. Choose the right variety of rice (idli rice/parboiled rice/ponni boiled rice)
  2. Use whole urad dal
  3. Idli batter recipe – Follow a 1:4 ratio of urad dal to rice in summer and a 1:3 ratio of urad dal to rice in winter. Essentially you are increasing the ratio of urad dal in winter to aid with fermentation. 
  4. Batter consistency should be free-flowing – neither too thick nor watery.
  5. Find a warm place to ferment (oven/heat vent/Instant Pot)
  6. Add salt and whisk the batter well once fermented.
  7. Grease the idli molds. Do not steam for more than 10 minutes.

I never want you to be disappointed that your idli batter didn’t ferment. Do you have more questions? I would love to answer them. Leave a comment, and I will be happy to help.

If you are looking for South Indian breakfast recipes, I have a few family favorites that I am sure you’ll love – 

  1. Lemon vermicelli -This delicious and tangy Semiya Upma (Lemon Vermicelli) is just what you need to start your day. It is filling and comes together in 15 minutes from start to finish.
  2. Upma – a semolina-based breakfast dish that takes less than 30 minutes.
  3. Buttermilk dosa – Buttermilk dosa – Delicious and soft, this dosa is perfect for breakfast, snacks, and even lunch. Learn how to make it in a few easy steps.
  4. Kapparutti – Kappa rutti or Kappa rotti – This soft in the center and crispy on the sides 4-ingredient dosa or pancake from Mangalore is a culinary delight. Try it out today – no fermentation required!
Did you enjoy this recipe or have a question?Please leave a comment below. Don’t forget to rate!
Do your idlis not turn out as soft as you want them to be? Learn the authentic south-Indian way to make idlis and start making soft idlis in no time
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4.79 from 23 votes

Idli recipe – How to make soft idlis every time

Do your idlis not turn out as soft as you want them to be? Learn the authentic south-Indian way to make idli and start making soft idlis in no time.
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Prep Time: 10 minutes
Cook Time: 10 minutes
Fermenting time: 12 hours
Total Time: 30 minutes
Servings: 32 idlis




  • Wash the rice and urad dal separately until the water runs clean.
  • Add the methi/fenugreek seeds to the rice and soak it in water for 4-6 hours. Soak the urad dal too for the same amount of time.


  • Soak a fistful of thick poha (flattened rice) (if using) in water for 5 minutes before grinding rice.
  • Drain all the water from the urad dal and grind it to a fine paste using spoonfuls of water at a time (approximately 3/4 cup in total).
  • Grind the rice to a coarse paste with approximately 1 cup of water and then mix both the pastes together in a large bowl and whisk them well.
  • Add water as needed (approximately another 1/2 cup) to get the batter to a consistency that is neither too thick or thin. If using Blendtec, run the smoothie cycle (approximately 60 seconds) for both idli and urad dal batter.
  • Fermentation – Keep the batter in a warm place to ferment (see notes). Once the batter has risen, add salt to the batter and whisk the batter to mix it well.


  • Grease the idli stand with oil and take a ladleful of batter and fill the idli mold.
  • Add 1/2 cup of water in the idli steamer and let it boil.
  • Put the idli stand inside and close the lid. Let the steam build for 8-10 minutes before switching off the gas.
  • If you are using a cooker, use it without a vent and steam it for 10 minutes and then switch the gas off. In both cases, wait until the steam is released (another 5-10 minutes) before you take the idli stand out.
  • Wait for another 5 minutes and then use a sharp knife to scoop the idlis out.
  • Serve warm with coconut chutney or red coconut chutney.


Fermentation – Fermentation can take anywhere between 8 – 12 hours (and sometimes up to 15 hours) depending on where you live. The batter is usually left to ferment in a warm place. For most people in India, that would mean leaving it on your kitchen counter. But for those living abroad in much colder climates, you have the following options
  1. Oven – Leave it in your oven with the light on or Preheat your oven to 170 degrees F or the lowest temperature it can be preheated to. Turn off the oven. Wait for 10 minutes and then place the batter in the oven.
  2. Close to your heat vent – Always place your vessel on a cookie sheet – don’t want the overflowing batter seeping inside the vent.
  3. The proof setting in your oven – Set it for 12 hours and your batter is nice and ready.
  4. Use an Instant Pot (my preferred choice) – Try this Instant Pot Idli recipe – this is my goto method to ferment idli batter.
Read the post…For helpful information on ingredient swaps, storage tips, meal prep ideas, and variations!

Disclaimer: Approximate nutritional information is provided as a courtesy and can vary depending on the exact ingredients/brands used. If you have health issues, please work with a registered dietician or nutritionist.


Serving: 1idliCalories: 52kcalCarbohydrates: 11gProtein: 1gSodium: 74mgFiber: 1g
Diet: Gluten-free, Vegan
Course: Breakfast
Method: Stovetop
Keywords: fermenting idli batter, soft, winter
Cuisine: Indian

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  1. Dear Madam,
    I would to know how to handle the fermented batter. Is there a rule of thumb? Do I stir it well only once or I could stir in between and when I am taking out the batter to pour into idli plates…, do I take from bottom up or from top only. Once the batter is fully fermented wouldn’t the ground rice get settled at the bottom if I don’t give it a good mix? I’m confused. My last batch of idly turned hard compared to my earlier batches. Could it be because I over mix the batter or the batter was thick? The batter was thicker than pouring consistency.

    1. Punitha – It is okay to mix the batter properly and you should be doing it. Does that answer your question?

      1. Hello
        When I switch off my gas after steaming idlis ,the idlis of the lower moulds become wet due to condensation ,how should i prevent it
        I tried putting less water at the bottom still this pronlem persists

    1. Sorry anu the previous page just disappeared as I was about to type the comment!I live in West Africa!I have a blender!Here we don’t get raw rice only parboiled rice!Again it’s not the same texture as Indian parboiled rice so would like to know the ratio of rice:whole skinned udad as I’ve never made idlis with blended fermented batter but I’ve made dosas when I was in delhi with store bought readymade idli batter and it was good!Kindly suggest what should be used to make soft idlys

      1. Hi Doreen – I would go with 1:3 ratio. 3 cups of rice to 1 cup of whole urad. Good luck!

  2. Hi da. Can you help me on my query? Should I need to add salt to the batter only after fermentation or should I have to add salt immediately after grinding the batter?

  3. 5 stars
    Hello mam,
    I am from Mumbai and I am thinking to start Idli Business. I would be Very contented if you can help me with the details for making Idlis on big Scale as compared to Homes. The technology required, the Batter making process & Storage.

    1. Hi Bhavan –

      I am sorry I can’t help you since I haven’t made idlis in massive amounts. Good luck with your venture.

      1. Hi
        I made idlis ur way but they stuck to the moulds n came out wit lot of difficultly n some broke also.Can u help n tell how to loosen them from moulds properly

      2. Komal – did you grease the moulds properly? They need to be greased with oil and use either a knife or a spoon to loosen them.

  4. Thanks for sharing your recipe. I use the 4:1 ratio for idli batter and use a US Oster blender. Still trying to figure out just how much or rather little water to use when grinding for the correct consistency. Please send me your suggestion. An approximate. Also is it better to use-cold water?

    1. While grinding the urad dal, I add approximately 3/4th cup water. For grinding rice, I use another 1/2 cup of water. Note: I drain all water from both rice and urad dal and then add this water for grinding. Hope this helps.

  5. Hi Anu,

    My idlis crack on top – what could be the reason for this? The idlis turn out fine but I would definitely like them to be softer. Please help.


    1. Hi Anu, How long are you cooking them for? Also, if the batter is very watery sometimes it does that. Do you add water to the batter after it is fermented? Let me know – would love to solve this for you.